Press release previews of the upcoming Red Bull Indianapolis GP from the MotoGP teams:
Bautista ready to take on the ‘Brickyard'
Publish Date: Monday, August 22, 2011
Rizla Suzuki is on its way Stateside for the 12th round of the 2011 MotoGP World Championship which will be held at the famous Indianapolis Motor Speedway in America.
Álvaro Bautista will be looking to continue with the huge potential that has been shown by him and the Suzuki GSV-R is recent races. He looked likely to fight for a top-five finish last time out at Brno, before lady-luck robbed him of the opportunity and he crashed. He is in a determined and focused mood to get a good qualifying position on Saturday to give him a better chance of getting away with the quick group come race-day and show what both he and the Rizla Suzuki are capable of.
Indianapolis will be staging a MotoGP for the fourth time in its illustrious history when the bikes take to the track on Sunday 28th August. The ‘Brickyard' is more usually associated with Indy Car and NASCAR racing, but the two-wheeled event has quickly become a highlight on the circuit's calendar. Known as the 'Brickyard' due to over three million paving bricks that used to cover the whole surface, now less than a metre of these bricks exist at the start line of 4,216m track. This fascinating symbol to the old days of racing is now simply known as the ‘Yard of Bricks'. The circuit has a permanent seating capacity for more than 250,000 people and a big crowd is expected this weekend when MotoGP rolls into town. The fans will also be entertained by not only the on-track excitement, but many other off-track events, both at the ‘Brickyard' and in downtown Indianapolis – making this one of the party Grands Prix of the year.
Rizla Suzuki will be rolling out on to ‘Gasoline Alley' on Friday for two free practice sessions. This will be followed by another practice on Saturday morning and then the all-action qualifying session in the afternoon. Sunday's 28-lap race gets underway at 14.00hrs local time (18.00hrs GMT) when Bautista will be going all-out to add his name to history books of this famous circuit.
"We have certainly made some big steps with the GSV-R over the last few races, but we still need to work on things at Indianapolis. We need find out what the true potential of the bike is and I need to improve my qualifying session performance. It is difficult to see if we can compete with the guys at the front if I am starting at the back of the grid and I have to use so much time and energy to get up to them. These are things that we are determined to do and if we are successful in them then who knows what the bike and the team are capable of producing. I finished eighth at Indianapolis last year and I know we can do better than that now with the package we have. I will be pushing right from the start and trying to make all the hard work we've done in recent races give us a good end result in America."
Edwards and Crutchlow ready for legendary Indianapolis challenge
The Monster Yamaha Tech 3 Team embarks on another American adventure this weekend, with Colin Edwards and Cal Crutchlow ready to tackle the legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway circuit.
Edwards is looking forward to racing in front of his home fans for the second time in just over a month, the Indianapolis round coming hot on the heels of his recent eighth place finish in the US Grand Prix at the Laguna Seca track in California.
The Texan is particularly looking forward to checking out the infield section of the 2.620 miles circuit, which has been completely resurfaced in readiness for round 12 of the 2011 MotoGP World Championship.
T he 37-year-old will arrive in Indianapolis confident he can consolidate his position inside the top 10 in the World Championship rankings while also strengthening his bid to finish leading non-factory rider this season. He is currently on an impressive run of six consecutive top 10 finishes to sit ninth in the rankings ahead of this Sunday's 28-lap race.
This weekend's race presents Crutchlow with another difficult but intriguing learning experience. The British rider has never seen the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, which is steeped in motorsport history and world famous for hosting the Indy 500, but he's looking forward to getting to work with his Monster Yamaha Tech 3 crew after a positive test session at the Brno circuit recently.
Crutchlow made improvements to the front-end feeling of his Yamaha YZR-M1 machine and he is determined to end a frustrating run of results in Indianapolis to get his bid for the pres tigious Rookie of the Year crown back on track.
Colin Edwards, 9th - 75 points:
"Racing at home in America for the second time in a few weeks is awesome and I'm really looking forward to this weekend. The build-up to the Indianapolis race is always pretty special because you've got the mystique and the history of the place and I really like that part of it. The people at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway have done a fantastic job to make MotoGP a success and hopefully the fans will get to see an exciting show this weekend. The track isn't too technical or demanding but I'm looking forward to riding on the new pavement on the infield. We all know it was pretty bumpy in parts but they've taken our feedback on board and done something to improve it, which is brilliant. I'm on a consistent run of results at the moment and hopefully that will continue this we ekend. I'd like to be a further up the order and pushing inside the top six a little more, but the guys in front of me every week are all on factory bikes, so I think all of us inside the Monster Yamaha Tech 3 Team are giving the maximum to do the best job we can."
Cal Crutchlow, 15th - 34 points:
"I am really looking forward to going to Indy because I've heard so much about what a fantastic facility the Motor Speedway is. But without any previous experience of riding there, I'm anticipating another difficult challenge. It is one I am relishing though because I'm determined to end this difficult period in the Championship. I haven't scored enough points in the last few races, so I'm looking forward to learning Indy but also getting a good result there too. The Yamaha is a good bike, the Monster Yamaha Tech 3 Team is brilliant, and I believe in my own ability, so we've got to put a ll the ingredients together to deliver the performances we know we are capable of. The test after the Brno race was really beneficial because we could work on the bike a lot and I could focus on adapting my style a lot more. We've got some more ideas to help us in the future, so hopefully a good result this weekend will help set me up for a strong finish to the season."
Yamaha Head Back to the USA for the Indianapolis Grand Prix
The MotoGP paddock heads stateside again this week for the second of the two US rounds of the 2011 MotoGP Championship. The legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway will host round 12 of the Championship, the second home race for Yamaha Factory Racing rider Ben Spies. The 2010 Indianapolis event became a feat of endurance for the MotoGP riders with track temperatures hitting 50 degrees over qualifying and race day. The sweltering conditions raised grip issues across the grid and the heat was physically exhausting for the riders.
Lorenzo struggled over the entire weekend to find a perfect set up for the difficult conditions last year, enduring the heat to finally deliver a well earned podium finish with third in the race. The World Champion started from second on the grid just behind Spies. Lorenzo has a good record at the circuit, claiming victory in 2009 and his first ever wet podium in 2008.
Despite the conditions MotoGP rookie Spies enjoyed his most successful race of the year at Indianapolis in 2010. The Texan rider took a scorching maiden pole position start from future team mate Lorenzo and converted it into a season best finish of second on race day, his first MotoGP podium.
With 257,000 permanent seats the Indianapolis Motor Speedway is the largest spectator sporting facility in the world and fills to capacity for its flagship events, the Indy 500 and Allstate 400 car races. Originally constructed in 1909 with a 2.5-mile oval, an exciting 16-turn motorcycle road circuit, which includes part of the historic oval, was purpose-built for MotoGP. The circuit was resurfaced earlier this year, improving the grip levels considerably for the riders.
As part of Yamaha's ongoing 50th Anniversay of Grand Prix racing celebrations, Yamaha Factory Racing will again run the special red and white livery at Indianapolis.
"Indy is a track I really enjoy. I treasure wonderful moments like the podiums in 2008 and 2010, and my victory in 2009 wearing Captain America's helmet. I am now in good shape and am ready to regain the ground we lost in Brno, where a mistake put a distance between Casey and I. I hope the good energy I feel in this track will still help us to fight for the title. I am really looking forward to going back to the US and riding my M1."
"I'm really hoping to be completely fit for this weekend. I've still got some numbness in the arm but it is better than it was at Brno. We've been working hard to get it right and we will of course give it 100% as always. I've been looking forward to this race all year; it was pretty crazy last year as a rookie to take pole and a second in the race. We're going to put on a good show for all the home fans and see what we can do."
"We had some problems at Indianapolis last year but they resurfaced the circuit so we're looking forward to checking it out as it wasn't in the best shape before. Jorge struggled to get the bike set up properly on it in 2010. With Ben's excellent experience over there we believe we are able to fight for victory or podiums. If we want to win the World Championship we need to win races and start beating Casey, it is going to be a big challenge but we're ready for it!"
"I'm hoping Ben's physical condition is better for the weekend; I'm hoping that he will be 100% because it is his home race and expectations are quite high. The team are going to use some new updates that we tested in Brno; these will help both Ben and Jorge challenge for the front. Last year both riders finished on the podium so we are confident for this event."
SIMONCELLI HEADS TO INDIANAPOLIS IN HIGH SPIRITS
Having finally broken his podium curse at Brno last time out, Team San Carlo Honda Gresini rider Marco Simoncelli travels across the Atlantic to the legendary Indianapolis circuit with his confidence sky-high this week. Having shown podium potential from the opening race of the season, 'Super Sic' finally broke his duck in the Czech Republic and can now look forward to riding with a huge weight taken off his shoulders. The legendary circuit this year marks a hundred years of the "Indy 500" and Simoncelli hopes he can also be celebrating this weekend. The Italian set pole position for the 250cc race in 2008 only for it to be cancelled due to Hurricane Ike, before going on to win the intermediate race in 2009 ahead of his current team-mate Hiroshi Aoyama. The Japanese rider recovered confidence in himself and in his Honda RC212V at Brno thanks to a ninth place finish. Last year he made his return to action in this event after six races out through injury and now he is looking to complete a return to form in 2011 after another injury setback put the brakes on a positive start to the campaign. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway holds up to 500,000 spectators at the famous 500-mile race and is now an established home for MotoGP.
Marco Simoncelli "A weight was lifted off my shoulders at Brno with my first ever podium in MotoGP and my 30th podium in all categories. It was a huge source of satisfaction because we have been chasing it since the opening race of the season and didn't quite manage it for various reasons. We needed it and I am happy for myself, the team, Honda and everybody who has believed in me. That kind of cloud is no longer hanging over us and hopefully that will make everything easier in the second half of the season. I am feeling strong and determined and I travel to America in the right mood to continue this positive progress. Indianapolis is a circuit I like overall although I do tend to struggle a little compared to the other smaller riders because of the first gear final corner that leads onto a really long straight. This is a problem for us but we will do our best to work it out and try to ensure it hinders us as little as possible. I took the win at Indianapolis in 250 in 2009 and I was on pole in 2008 when the race was cancelled because of the hurricane. The team and I are highly motivated and hope to continue in the same way we found in Brno."
Hiroshi Aoyama "Ninth place at Brno wasn't an amazing result but it was positive for me because I recovered my physical condition and my confidence with the bike. After the Czech Republic Grand Prix I am feeling more motivated and determined for the second half of the season. I needed to rediscover my confidence in myself and in the RC212V, and I think Brno was a positive weekend in that respect. Now I go to Indianapolis in a different mood. I finished second here behind Marco Simoncelli in the 250cc race a couple of years ago and returned to action here last year after missing six races through injury. It wasn't an easy weekend for me but I managed to finish the race and I enjoyed the track so I am very much looking forward to a stronger showing this weekend."
Fausto Gresini "It seemed like an impossible miracle because of the amount of times a podium had slipped through our fingers for one reason or another, so Marco and the team did a fantastic job to not lose faith and continue to believe in their potential. Now he has broken his duck everything should be easier for Marco, he can be more relaxed on the bike and his potential will rise even further. Brno was an important weekend for the team and I am happy for Marco, all the guys in the team, our partners and San Carlo, who have always believed enthusiastically in our project. Now we go to Indianapolis with a different mentality. It is a circuit that has been kind to us for the past two years, with a podium for Alex De Angelis in 2009 and a splendid Moto2 win for Toni Elias last year. So it's another 'friendly' circuit for us and I hope we have more to celebrate there. Hiroshi Aoyama also rediscovered some form and self-confidence at Brno so I am sure that this weekend we will again see the same Hiroshi that was running near the front of the MotoGP field in the early stages of this season."
Bridgestone MotoGP Preview - Round 12: Indianapolis
Tuesday 23 August 2011
Bridgestone slick compounds available: Front: Soft, Medium, Hard. Rear (asymmetric): Hard, Extra Hard
MotoGP travels to the United States of America for the second time this season for the Indianapolis Grand Prix on 28 August, round 12 of the 18-race series.
The inaugural Indianapolis Grand Prix was only held in 2008 but for this year's Grand Prix 1.5miles of the 2.6mile circuit has been resurfaced so half the circuit is new, posing a new challenge for Bridgestone's tyres.
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway, affectionately known as the Brickyard, is formed of three distinct parts; the famous oval, the infield road circuit built for Formula One in 1999, and the opening complex built specifically for MotoGP. Whereas in past years each section of the circuit has a markedly different surface which offered a different level of grip, now initial feedback indicates that the resurfacing work has made the grip level much more consistent and the tarmac much smoother, which will help the riders and also the tyres as bumps interrupt the rubber's contact patch.
In theory this will make it easier on the tyres as previously the multitude of different surfaces in a lap demanded a lot from them but the surface is also brand new so a relative unknown, although Nicky Hayden did test the new surface after the last American round at Laguna Seca and his feedback was very positive.
Nevertheless Bridgestone's tyre compound selections are unchanged this season, although with the addition of the third softer front slick option to maximise warm-up performance and rider safety in conditions that are colder than expected.
The circuit's layout places much higher demands on the left shoulders of the tyres and in fact it is one of the hardest circuits of the season for the left shoulders of the rear tyres because of the number, length and speed of the left-handers and the abrasiveness of the tarmac. For this reason it is the only Grand Prix this season to which the extra hard compound rear slicks have been selected, although both rear tyre options feature Bridgestone's soft compound rubber in the right shoulders.
Hiroshi Yamada – Manager, Bridgestone Motorsport Department
"This week we're back in America again, now in the east in Indianapolis as opposed to last time we were there five weeks ago at Laguna Seca on the west coast. It's clear that Indianapolis are working hard for the benefit of MotoGP with all their recent resurfacing work and we are happy to be going again to such an historic circuit. Indy is a vast place so I hope that we can see many spectators in the huge grandstands! Even though Casey's win last time out extended his championship lead over Jorge, we've only just started the second half of the season and there's a long way to go until the title is decided so I fully expect to see the championship fight really gathering pace in Indy and the remaining six grands prix."
Hirohide Hamashima – Assistant to Director, Motorsport Tyre Development Division
"Reports are that IMS have done a great job resurfacing the circuit which will make for more consistent conditions this year. It won't change the physical demands placed on our tyres, because the corners are still the same and haven't been re-profiled, so we haven't changed our compound selection from last year other than with the addition of the third spec of front tyre with the new regulations. The speed may be a little higher because the tarmac and the grip will be more consistent, whereas in the past there were clear changes in the circuit character from the opening section designed for MotoGP to the Formula One infield to the famous oval. The tarmac is much smoother now which will also help as bumps interrupt the tyres' contact patch and we saw a few falls last year because of this.
"Indianapolis is a relatively hard circuit for the left shoulders of our rear tyres in particular because of the speed and long nature of left-handed corners such as turn one and turn five. Being leant over for a relatively long time at speed creates some of the highest rear tyre temperatures of the year, and for this reason Indianapolis is the only Grand Prix all year for which we have selected the extra hard compound rubber in the left side of the rear slick tyres."
The Repsol Honda Team looking for another strong race weekend in America
The Repsol Honda Team travels this week to Indianapolis, the second visit of the summer to the USA, with high expectations after the strong performance at Brno. Casey Stoner, Dani Pedrosa and Andrea Dovizioso were the focus of attention in the Czech Republic and they aim to be the reference once again at the Indianapolis Grand Prix, the twelfth round of the MotoGP Championship.
Casey Stoner took a major step forward in the fight for the title by turning a difficult weekend into a convincing victory that places him 32 points clear at the top of the standings. His record at Indy is not so convincing having only raced there twice (missing the 2009 race due to health checks), taking 4th in 2008 and crashing out of the race last year, after a positive weekend - so this is a good opportunity to settle his score with this track and try to win twice this year in America after having already done so at Laguna Seca.
Andrea Dovizioso is enjoying his best season since his arrival in MotoGP and wants to keep up this momentum. He loves racing in America and is full of confidence after scoring his fifth podium of the year at Brno.
Dani Pedrosa will be aiming to finish the job he was unable to complete in the last race, crashing out after such a good weekend, and return on top at a track where he won at in 2010.
All three riders are looking forward to seeing first hand how the circuit has improved with the new surface. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is hosting a MotoGP race for the fourth successive year and it's one of the most impressive venues for both scale and reputation.
CASEY STONER – World Championship Position: 1st with 218 points
"In the past seasons the track at Indy has been extremely bumpy and also slightly dangerous so I'm looking forward to going there and riding the new surface. It will also be nice to ride the Honda there, as it took a lot of work to get the set up right on the Ducati at such a peculiar circuit. I've only ridden the circuit in 2008 and 2010 and we were pretty competitive there last year, but then I lost the front in the race, so it will be good to get there, test the new surface and get to work on the set up on my RC212V".
ANDREA DOVIZIOSO – World Championship Position: 3rd with 163 points
"We arrive in Indy after a podium finish in Brno and I hope we can continue this momentum. The Indianapolis racetrack is a typical American venue with great facilities and huge grandstands, the track is not particularly interesting but all in all it's a very nice event. This year the track has been resurfaced in some parts so for sure it will be much more fun to ride as in the past it was very bumpy and there were different kind of asphalts. Last year in the practice and qualifying sessions we were fast but we struggled in the race, finishing 5th. I'm confident we can be competitive again this year, we are very motivated and focused".
DANI PEDROSA – World Championship Position: 5th with 110 points
"I'm heading to Indianapolis and really looking forward to the race. Last year we had a good race there and I hope I can repeat this again. The asphalt has changed, so we will have to adapt to the new surface, check how the tyres are working there and look for the best race setup possible. Physically I'm improving little by little; already in Brno I felt better than in the past months, so I hope I can be in good shape for the race. Obviously the last race result was very disappointing for me and my team after such a good weekend, but we take the positive things from it and move forward".
MOTOGP RETURNS STATESIDE FOR ROUND TWELVE
In-form Héctor Barberá looking for more American success
Less than a month since their last visit to the USA at Laguna Seca the MotoGP teams and riders return 'Stateside' this week for a visit to the legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway, venue of the twelfth round of the 2011 season. The tough Indy layout combines sections of the world-famous oval with a series of infield corners designed specifically for motorcycle racing. The Indianapolis Grand Prix is followed just a week later by the San Marino round - the fourth back-to-back sequence of an exhausting season so far - offering race fans a mouthwatering bonanza of action as Jorge Lorenzo picks up his quest to hunt down series leader Casey Stoner, currently 32 points clear at the top of the standings.
MAPFRE Aspar rider Héctor Barberá lies eleventh in the championship but has been in improving form over the last four races. The Spaniard left the last round at Brno with tenth place despite some setbacks in the race, demonstrating his increasing pace and evolution of his Ducati, which has gathered pace since the Italian round in June. Ninth place at Laguna Seca after a fantastic weekend in practice is a good minimum target for the youngster to aim for on his second visit to the USA this season.
Héctor Barberá: "The week off has been great for me to disconnect and spend time with my people but also continuing to train hard. The second part of the season usually tends to be the hardest part and I want to be in top physical shape so that I can keep giving one hundred per cent until the end of the season. I am feeling very motivated about the upcoming Grand Prix - things have been working out well for us lately, we are working hard and it is bearing fruit. We had a little setback in the race at Brno but fought back well and I am sure that if we keep going like this we will keep progressing and a ninth place result, which until recently was seen a good result, will seem like something normal. We have to be ambitious and believe that we can be fighting for a better position in each race. The first visit of the year to the USA was a positive one so I hope the second one is at least as good."
DUCATI TEAM RETURNS TO THE U.S. FOR INDIANAPOLIS GRAND PRIX
The second United States round of the 2011 MotoGP World Championship will take place this Sunday at Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the home circuit for Nicky Hayden. The American was born and resides just a few hours away, and during the summer break, he was able to turn a few laps at the track aboard an 1198 SP. The infield section, between Turns 5 and 16, was recently repaved, and Hayden found it to be improved.
Hayden, who earned his first Ducati podium at Indianapolis in 2009, will be aboard the GP11.1 on Friday, just like his teammate Valentino Rossi. The Italian won his Indianapolis debut in 2008, and although the track isn't among his absolute favorites, he and his team would like to confirm their recent progress with the Desmosedici's setup.
Rossi is particularly fond of racing in the United States, and like Hayden, he has many fans there that will join the many American Ducatisti that make the annual trip to "Ducati Island".
VALENTINO ROSSI, Ducati Team
"Indy is a difficult circuit, and although it's not exactly one of my favorites, we'll see how we perform there with the Ducati. They resurfaced part of the track, so the conditions should certainly be better from that point of view. We made a little progress with the GP11.1's setup during the Brno GP, and we'll see if we can confirm them at this next race. Anyway, racing in America is always nice for me, as I enjoy both the atmosphere and the fans, who are always very passionate. On the other hand, I'm very sorry that we'll be missing someone who undoubtedly followed our sport, though not at the track: Claudio Castiglioni was very passionate and he did a lot for the motorcycle world, and for me in particular when he helped me get started in racing in Sport Production 125 when I was 14."
NICKY HAYDEN, Ducati Team
"We're going to Indy, and we'll see what the new track surface does. I've ridden it, and the bumps are definitely gone, although I'd say it will take some time on Friday to clean it up and get some rubber down. I'm looking forward to this event. I always enjoy racing at home in front of friends and family, but I need to go there and focus on my job. I want to try to do a good result while also having fun and enjoying the weekend. The team has worked really hard to get me the opportunity to ride this new bike, and now it's up to me to try and pay them back with a good result."
VITTORIANO GUARESCHI, Team Manager
"We come to Indy after a test day at Brno, where the team and both riders did a lot of work: Valentino dedicated all of his time to trying many different adjustments to the GP11.1's setup, which was a really tough assignment that Valentino approached with incredible commitment. Nicky also did a lot of laps, finding good enough harmony with the GP11.1 that both riders will use it at Indy. This is an important decision that will accelerate our development work. It's Nicky's home race, and that always provides extra motivation. In fact, he earned his first podium with Ducati there in 2009. He was also really strong last year, though his race was unfortunately affected when he lost a knee slide in the early laps."
INDIANAPOLIS CIRCUIT RECORDS
Circuit Record: Jorge Lorenzo (Yamaha – 2009), 1:40.152 – 151.545 Km/h
Best Pole: Dani Pedrosa ( Honda – 2009), 1:39.730 – 152.186 Km/h
Circuit Length: 4.216 km
2011 MotoGP Race: 28 laps (118.048 Km)
2011 MotoGP Schedule: 14:00 Local Time
Number of laps: 28
Total race distance: 118.048 Km
2010 PODIUM: 1st Dani Pedrosa, 2nd Ben Spies, 3rd Jorge Lorenzo
2010 POLE: Ben Spies (Yamaha – 2010), 1:40.105 – 151.616 Km/h
DUCATI TEAM'S BEST RESULTS AT INDIANAPOLIS
2010: 6th (Hayden)
2009: 3rd (Hayden)
2008: 4th (Stoner)
MYERS TO RIDE SUZUKI'S MOTOGP GSV-R
Team Suzuki Press Office - August 17.
American Suzuki Motor Corporation (ASMC) is proud to announce that Team SuzukiScoopFans rider Elena Myers will turn several laps aboard the Suzuki GSV-R MotoGP bike at 12:45 PM on Thursday, August 25th, at the historic Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Indianapolis a few days before the Red Bull Indianapolis GP that weekend.
"Words cannot describe how excited I am to ride the Suzuki GSV-R at Indy during the MotoGP weekend this year," said Myers. "We had talked about it last year, but things didn't work out, so here's a big thanks to everyone involved for making this possible. When I sat on the bike last year, it felt like it was made to fit me. So actually being able to spin a few laps on it will be quite the treat. I'm really looking forward to the weekend."
Myers finished an impressive fifth overall in the 2011 AMA Pro SuperSport West Division, despite missing two rounds due to injury. En route to that result, the 17-year-old California native picked up a podium finish at Barber Motorsports Park, plus five top-five finishes throughout the season. Finally, Myers became the first female racer to ever win an AMA Pro road race when she captured the AMA Pro SuperSport victory at Infineon Raceway in Sonoma, California last year.
Suzuki's MotoGP Team Manager Paul Denning, commented, "We are delighted to be able to give Elena this opportunity to get some understanding of how Suzuki's MotoGP bike feels and operates. She is a very talented racer - not "for a girl" - she's just fast full-stop! MotoGP is the pinnacle of every racer's ambition and there aren't so many people who have ridden the very latest 2011 GSV-R - Bautista, Hopkins, Aoki and now Elena! I would guess she's also the only female racer to have ever ridden an 800cc MotoGP machine? Either way, we really hope she enjoys the experience."